Guadalupe B. Santaella Hidalgo y. Mtra. Laura A. Somarriba Rocha. Interpretación del Test. Gestáltico Visomotor de Bender. Sistema de puntuación de Koppitz. Koppitz Developmental Scoring System (Koppitz-2) for the Bender Gestalt II requires the client to draw increasingly-complex figures, from the Bender designs . Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for Bender Gestalt 2nd Edition. Cecil R. Reynolds, Ph.D. Pricing & Ordering. Determine the presence and degree of.

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The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test abbreviated as Bender-Gestalt test is a psychological test used by mental health practitioners that assesses visual-motor functioning, developmental disorders, and neurological impairments in children ages 3 and older and adults.

The test consists of nine index cards picturing different geometric designs. The cards are presented individually and test subjects are asked to redraw each one from memory before the next card is shown. Test results are scored based on the accuracy and organization of the reproductions.

The Bender-Gestalt test was originally developed in by child psychiatrist Lauretta Bender. The first version of the Bender-Gestalt test was developed in by koppifz neuropsychiatrist Lauretta Bender.

The original test consists of nine index cards with different figures on each card. The subject is shown each figure and asked to copy it onto a piece of blank paper.

The test typically takes 7—10 minutes, after which the results are scored based on accuracy and organization. It can be administered on both children and adults ages three and older. Bender first described her Visual Motor Gestalt Test in a monograph entitled: The figures were derived from the work of the Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer. Additional koppiitz were developed by later practitioners, although adaptations designed as projective tests have been heavily criticized in the clinical literature due to their lack of psychometric validity.

The impetus for the clinical use of the Bender Gestalt came in the late s when Max L. Hutt, an Gender at the Educational Clinic of City College of New York became interested in developing a nonverbal projective personality test.

The advantages of such an instrument would eliminate problems with language as well as prevent the test subjects from consciously screening their responses and the reproduction of the nine Bender Test Figures by test subjects could be accomplished in as little as ten minutes.

Reasoning that providing a test subject with benedr sheets of blank paper, a pencil, and explaining that “you are going to be shown some cards, one at a time, with a simple design on each of them and you are to copy them as well as you can. Do it any way you think is best for you. This is not a test of artistic ability, but try to copy the designs as well as you can” would confront the subject with an ambiguous problem to solve.


With no further instructions and the response of “do it in any way you think is best” to any questions, the subject was forced to interpret the task and proceed bendder a manner that was consistent with the individual’s accustomed personality style. Hutt subsequently developed benxer series kopputz “test factors” with suggestions as to the personality characteristics with which they might be associated.

However, nothing regarding this preliminary work was published and it remained out of the mainstream of educational psychology, which at that time was virtually limited to intelligence, ability and koppit interest testing.

The Army was experiencing a need to quickly train and deploy both Psychiatrists and Psychologists to meet the vastly increased need of professionals to diagnose and treat the emotional problems that develop in the stress of wartime military duty.

Hutt’s first assignment was to train Psychologists as clinicians and he established classes at Brooke Army Hospital in San Antonio, Texas. There he introduced the Bender-Gestalt Test to classes of inducted and commissioned bfnder who in prior years had experience in educational clinics, schools, and mental institutions.

In he published and distributed a mimeographed “Tentative Guide for the Administration and Interpretation of the Bender-Gestalt Test” which had, in the previous three years, been widely adopted and utilized in the U. The clinicians trained by Hutt and now discharged and continuing the practice and teaching of Clinical Psychology in civilian life made the Bender-Gestalt one of the most widely utilized psychological tests.

Briskin, who had served during the Korean War and who had made considerable use of the Bender-Gestalt during his military beneer.

Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt Test – Second Edition (Koppitz-2)

Briskin had acquired extensive experience with that test in treating and diagnosing brain damage and stress-related psychological and psychiatric disorders. Their discussions and exchange of clinical findings led to the decision to bring their joint extensive experience with the Bender Gestalt in one definitive volume and that led to the gender of “The Clinical use of the Revised Bender-Gestalt Test, N. Grune and Stratton, The test has been used as a screening device for kopppitz damage.

Bender herself said it was “a method of evaluating maturation of gestalt functioning children ‘s brain functioning by which it responds to a given constellation of stimuli as a whole, the response being a motor process of patterning the perceived gestalt. Originally published by the American Orthopsychiatric Association, it was purchased in the s by Riverside Publishing company and released with a revised qualitative scoring system as the Bender-II under the direction of Dr.

Gary Brannigan and Dr. The Bender-II contains 16 figures versus 9 in the original. The new or revised scoring system koppitzz the Bender-II was developed based on empirical investigation of numerous scoring systems. The Global Scoring System was, tangentially related to Bender’s original scoring method and a revision of a system devised by Branigan in the s, was beder based on reliability and validity studies, as well as its ease of use and construct clarity.


Elizabeth Koppitz, a clinical child psychologist and school psychologist who worked most of her career in New Yorkdeveloped a scoring system in the s devoted to assessing the maturation of visual-motor skills in children, remaining true to Bender’s aim for the test, and popularized its use in the schools. After Koppitz’s death in the early s, the use of the method held its popularity until the mids, when it was withdrawn from the market as a result of publishing company consolidations.

Steve Mathews and Cecil Reynolds a friend of Koppitz for some years near the end of her life were eventually able to locate the publishing rights to the Koppitz version of the Bender-Gestalt, and these rights were subsequently acquired by Pro-Ed Publishing Company of Austin Texas, which then retained Cecil Reynolds to revise the Koppitz version.

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It was released under Reynolds’ authorship in by Pro-Ed as the Koppitz A portion of the proceeds of all sales of the Koppitz-2 goes to the American Psychological Foundation to support the Koppitz scholarships in child clinical psychology.

It is important to koppiz that when kopppitz test-taker has a mental age is less than 9, brain damage, a nonverbal learning disability, or an emotional problem, an error can occur in the results of the test. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

March Learn how and when to remove this template message. It is for these latter functions that the B-G has garnered much criticism in the clinical literature. The past 2 decades have witnessed a steady stream of condescending commentary directed largely on bennder lack of psychometric credibility of individual projective methods.

Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender-Gestalt Test – Second Edition

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