The Jominy end quench test. Introduction: The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the. The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a given set. PDF | The Jominy end-quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel , which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a.

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The hardenability depends on the alloy composition of the steel, and can also be affected by prior processing, such as the austenitisation temperature.

DoITPoMS – TLP Library The Jominy End Quench Test

The Vickers test is most commonly used in the UK. Knowledge of the hardenability of steels is necessary in order to select the appropriate combination of alloy and heat treatment for components of different size, to minimise thermal stresses and distortion. The formatting page breaks, etc of the printed version is unpredictable and highly dependent on your browser.

Hardenability is the ability of a steel to partially or completely transform from austenite to some fraction of martensite at a given depth below the surface, when cooled under a given condition. This composite microstructure of martensite and austenite gives a lower hardness to the steel, although the microhardness of the martensite phase itself is still high.

Steels with high hardenability are needed for large high strength components, such as large extruder screws for injection moulding of polymers, pistons for rock breakers, mine shaft supports, aircraft undercarriages, and also for small high rnd components such as die-casting moulds, drills and presses for stamping coins.

Structure of En 24 at 10 cm position along Jominy bar, furthest from the quenched end. Select the most appropriate steel to achieve the necessary levels of mechanical properties, residual stress and distortion in a 1mm diameter wood-working drill. However, the effect is too small be be commonly used for control of hardenability. The Vickers hardness test uses a square pyramidal diamond indentor.


Increasing the austenite grain size therefore decreases the available nucleation sites, which retards the rate of the phase transformation.

The Jominy End Quench Test

The Jominy Test involves heating a test piece from the steel 25mm diameter and mm long to an austenitising temperature and quenching from one end with a controlled and standardised jet of water. Fest graph below gives the Jominy end quench data in terms of the Rockwell hardness number. It is then carefully and quickly moved to the quenching machine and positioned above a water jet.

The initial red-hot state represents the austenitic condition and the subsequent cooling results in a variety of transformations that depend on the chemical composition of the steel.

The interval is typically 1. Again, you have three steels. Measurement of hardenability Uses of Jominy data: Structure of En 8, 1 cm from quenched end of Jominy bar. The cold region has transformed from austenite to a mixture of martensite, ferrite and pearlite.

The Jominy End Quench Test

It is typically used with lower carbon steels. The proportions of the phases at any position depends on the cooling rate, with more martensite formed where the cooling rate is fastest. If the intention is to produce a martensitic structure, then the constituents of the steel must be such that the phase is obtained over the depth required. The hardness variation along the test surface is a result of microstructural variation which arises since the cooling rate decreases with distance from the quenched end.

This cools the specimen from one end, simulating the effect of quenching a larger steel component in water. Select the most appropriate steel to achieve the necessary levels of mechanical properties, residual stress and distortion in an injection moulding die for a mobile phone plastic case. As the water jet sprays onto the end of the hot, glowing specimen, a cold dark region spreads up the specimen. Jominy end quench test can also be used to demonstrate the effects of microstructure and alloying variables on the hardenability of steels.


There are conversion charts between the hardness scales. Structure of En 24 at 5 cm position along Jominy bar. This TLP considers the basic concepts of hardenability and the Jominy test. The depth from the quenched end, over which martensite is obtained, is then the measure of hardenability. The hardness of the samples was measured as a function of the distance from the quenched end to demonstrate the different hardenability of the two steels.

Steel compositions are sometimes described in terms of a carbon equivalent which describes the magnitude of the effect of all of the elements on hardenability.

Boron has a very strong affinity for oxygen and nitrogen, with which it forms compounds. The hardness number is usually denoted by HV20 for Quencch ardness V ickers 20 kg, for example.

The recorded hardness depends on the indentation load and the width of the square indentation made by the diamond. Three low alloy steels, which differ only in their carbon content 0. The solubility of the elements varies between the different phases, and the interface between the growing phase cannot move quendh diffusion of the slowly moving elements. These include alloying elements and grain size.

Increasing the carbon content increases the hardness of steels up to about 0. High carbon steels are prone to distortion and cracking during heat treatment, and can be difficult to machine in the annealed condition before heat treatment. The resultant microstructure is quite coarse, with reduced toughness and ductility.

Carbon controls the hardness of the martensite.

The results are jokiny in the graph below. The indentor is either a conical diamond pyramid, or a hardened steel ball. High hardness occurs where high volume fractions of martensite develop. Slow quenching speeds are often chosen to reduce distortion and residual stress in components. Ferrite and pearlite are formed where the cooling rate is slower.