Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.
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There also are states, some of them new states in the process of consolidation, where integration is so poor that other arbold must deal with parts, rather than with a fictitious whole, if diplomacy is to be discprd. Thus, nations have been advised to act on the principle of collective security, in the strict sense of the term, in order to help create a milieu in which threats idscord national possessions will cease to arise.
Some have criticized this terminology on the very ground that it creates a prejudice in favor of the nation-state as the center of things; they suggest that the term “international politics” be replaced by the term “world politics. They may not succeed, however, in eliciting such a response if one or more of these other nations is hostile to the very idea of nonalign- ment or neutrality.
Reunification has become a pressing possession goal for these partitioned countries. Tests on animals, children, or adults carried out collaaboration zoologists or psychologists may not be entirely barren of results if transferred by analogy to the international field; anything that can be learned about human or analogous animal behavior behavior induced, for instance, by fear, provocation, and rewards, or attitudes attributable to amity and enmity throws some light on events occurring on the stage of world affairs.
If they can be made to do so, they will contribute to the development of a theory that rightly can claim to be “realistic” since it will throw light on dolfers chief aspects of the realities in contemporary international politics. One might better regard them as the two ends of a continuum that runs from mere hopes to goals of vital interest. There are those who claim that too great an emphasis on adn role of states and their interests in power, prestige, territory, and the like, will divert polit- ical action from the satisfaction of the common man’s real needs wolvers desires to the service of the few who can parade their interests as those of the nation.
Indirect national goals present a problem similar to the milieu goals.
Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics – Arnold Wolfers – Google Books
If they are thereby rendered incapable of a dispassionate view of the situation, they may fail, for instance, to seek amical solutions to conflicts that actually would be capable of peaceful resolution. The same is true, too, of many acts of individual generosity and charity which may pay high “dividends” to the donor and yet be a moral credit to him.
In war, compulsiveness and conformity usually are at a maxi- mum, with the result that all nations feel compelled, for example, to employ the most effective weapons at their disposal.
The emphasis so far has been on popular emotions which, when hostile, may reach a point of mass hysteria that leaves the govern- ment little room for moderation.
The Soviet estimate of American resistance to wolgers of the U. Coolaboration the single versus multiple factor approach is not a serious issue of debate today, the controversy concerning the respective role of environmental and predispositional determinants has not come to rest and may never do so.
These factors will be discussed here under the heading of determinants, or codeterminants, of policy. There is hardly a region left in the world where nation-states are not either already functioning or in the process of being established.
However, this dis- sociation between the cold-blooded pursuit of the national interest and human feelings is never complete.
In the first place, they are unable to wolferw their “patients” to direct laboratory tests or controlled experiments, which have On Theory and Practice xv contributed more than any other single factor to scientific progress.
The Communist governments are not the only governments that are influenced by universalist ideological causes and are therefore ready to engage in efforts unappealing to nation-states of nineteenth-century European vintage. There is no yardstick by which to decide whether the promotion of any particular interest of larger or smaller groups of citizens deserves to be turned into a national goal, but it would be absurd to maintain that no goal can be in the national interest unless it is of the direct type.
Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics
Not all criticism of efforts directed toward milieu goals can, however, be discounted in this fashion. In fact, such escalation would be a condition of success because mere counterguerilla activities cannot restore peace and order to a terri- tory torn by guerilla warfare.
Members of the groups just mentioned are engaged in parallel efforts to reach a common goal by outdoing one another. At both institutions I enjoyed the further privilege of having able and. The only restraints on competitive efforts that have a chance of gaining favor are those that assure equal advantage or equal disadvantage to both sides. From what has been said, it seems proper to conclude that the closer nations are drawn to the pole of complete compulsion, the more they can be expected to conform in their behavior and to act in a way that corresponds to the deductions made from the states-as- actors model.
Kavar Karim added it Dec 27, The United States, to give another example, has no assurance that a Yugoslav desire to restore solidar- ity with the Communist bloc might not at any moment gain the upper hand over the wish to maintain cordial relations with the United States.
If Hitler had believed the tenets of German Geopolitik, he can be assumed to have discounted factors other than geography in his calculation of German expansionist opportunities in the east. No serious analyst would contend today that behavior in the international field, or for that matter in any other field of human activity, could be satisfactorily explained by reference to a single determinant.
There is no lack of a suitable vocabulary to identify a set of non- state corporate actors, but it is not without significance that all the terms refer to something called “national” which is the character- istic feature of the nation-state.
Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics.
Various explana- tions are possible that France’s fear of Germany was exceptionally strong or that French statesmen were exhibiting a unique degree of foresight in realizing that the French position would in time be- come untenable.
They may expect such co-operation to bolster rather than disturb friendly relations with others. When it comes to the objectives, the conflict resembles a head-on collision of parties pursuing different, opposing, and incompatible goals.
It is not hard to see what kinds of deviations from the billiard ball model of a multistate system are possible, or to see that certain types of deviations facilitate the operations and increase the influ- ence of nonstate corporate actors.
Some of the neutralist countries may learn in time that vociferous attacks on “imperialist America” are not conducive to cordial relations with the United States! After what has been said to persuade the reader that, normally at least, it is no waste of his time and effort to subject himself to exacting abstract exercises, it still remains to be asked whether in a revolutionary age such as ours the existing general concepts and propositions pertaining to international politics may not, as some have suggested, be rapidly becoming obsolete.
A second illustration should serve to show what is meant by compulsive action arising not from external danger but from an opportunity for gain. In the meantime much can happen to a nation that diverts its limited military power from the task of protecting itself against immediate and specific threats to the task of “police action” in places where its survival is not at stake.
Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics. (Book, ) 
Read more Read less. This item was part of a history library in my father’s home. When this happens these leaders place their states in the service of the transnational cause of abolishing Western colonial rule everywhere. If one were in contact with the people of the Soviet Union today, one probably would find them preoccupied with the tasks of furthering their personal welfare, happiness, and social advancement in much the same way as any similar group of people in the United States.
If his use of the deductive method, as described earlier, permits him to formulate expectations of probable state behavior that prove relatively accurate, why should he take a long, effort-consuming “detour” of the kind re- quired by the decision-making approach and conduct an extensive empirical investigation into the motivations of a Stimson or a Truman? The danger is particularly serious in the case of indirect goals because of the influence that subnational pressure groups are capable of exerting on their behalf.
In the absence of an external threat requiring collaboration with others for defense, sovereign governments aware of their prime responsibilities toward their own people usually do not dare to relinquish their freedom of action; on their continuing freedom in policy-making- rests their ability to safeguard the national interest.
The discovery of such similarities of interest and aspiration tends to arouse a sense of sympathetic understanding; it certainly does not provoke fear or serve to justify policies based on the collwboration of international conflict. Satellitism and inter- national Communism represent more of a triumph of the Russian state than a break with the traditional collabiration system. Occurrences of this kind were well-known in medieval times, before the age of nation-state predominance, when excommunication by the pope, collaobration supra- national actor, could deprive a king of control over his people.
Brian Carlson marked it as to-read Nov 29,